Dreamtime, 3-4


3. "The Vagina of ... Venus"

pp. 184-185 spiritual bestiality, and sexual therianthropy, among the South American tropical-forest denizens

p. 184, n. 3:27

Desana of the Uaupe`s river : "The shaman is called ye>e ..., he ... has [sexual] intercourse with female animals. In the same manner, the master of animals balances matters by attacking young girls and raping them. ...;

see G. Reichel-Dolmatoff, Amazonian Cosmos (Chicago, 1971), pp. 82, 126, 129, 132."

p. 185, n. 3:27

Yanomami of the upper Orinoco : "the Yanoma`mi hunter and his wife go to the hunt. When they find some tracks, ... snuffs epe`na, a hallucinogenic powder. ... With her legs apart, the wife then lies down on the tracks in such a way that they are under her vagina. If the tracks are those of a tapir, for instance, then the hunter progressively turns into the spirit (hekura` or hekula`) of the tapir and his wife into the female of the species. She ... caresses the penis until erection occurs and then proceeds to intromission. ... The tapir will see with its own eyes that it will be reborn ...;

see H. Becher, Pore` / Perimbo` (Hannover, 1974), p. 53."

pp. 187-188 how the soul of her prospective progeny entereth the mother’s womb

p. 187, n. 3:36

Trobriand : "the penis was needed to widen the vagina of a virgin (nakapatu, ‘the closed one’), so that the ‘spirit child’ could enter. ...

see A. C. Rentoul, Physiological paternity and the Trobrianders, Man (1931), p. 153."

p. 188, n. 3:36

"Among southern Australian tribes, the ‘spirit child’ or julan’ didji penetrates into the uterus of the pregnant woman and ‘animates’ the fetus;

see R. Berndt and C. Berndt, A preliminary report of field work in the Ooldea Region, Oceania (1943), p. 374; and W. L. Warner, A Black Civilization (New York, 1958), p. 23.

p. 188, n. 3:36

In Tibet ... If there is no embryo expecting it for which it could become a ‘soul’, it ... makes the woman ill. Such a woman must be made pregnant as soon as possible;

see M. Hermanns, Die Familie der Mdo-Tibeter (Freiburg, 1959), pp. 45, 209."

p. 188, n. 3:36 "the women are raped by up to a dozen men in the otivbombari ritual, supposedly in order to help ... the fetuses to grow; see J. van Baal, Dema (The Hague, 1966), pp. 815, 479, 493." {The same reason (to help the foeti to grow) is likewise given for the Australian aboriginal Kunapipi and C^anawul rites involving many men having sexual intercourse with one woman.}

p. 189, n. 3:37 spirits & heroes reposing under the foliage of fig-trees

"Satyrs liked to rest under fig-trees, when they were not busy chasing women. ...

Right into our times it was considered dangerous in Palestine to sleep in its shadow, because the demonic maskun selt in its leaves.

... it was said that Tannha:user slept under a fig tree when Venus approached him."

pp. 187-189, 193 prae-incarnational souls’ life upon trees

p. 187, n. 3:36

"The ‘spirit children’ or ‘child germs’ of the Bad of the Dampier Peninsula live in orchids or bandara trees before conception. They are called rai, meaning ... ‘hidden’ or ‘secret’;

see E. A. Worms, Australian mythological terms, Anthropos (1957), p. 755. If a rai appears to a woman, she must ask it who is supposed to become its father. Should the ‘spirit child’ name a man other than her husband, she must sleep with that one. ...

p. 188, n. 3:36

The man takes in the rai and passes it on to the woman. ... ‘My father said, "I take you into your mother" ’;

see E. A. Worms, Mythologische Selbstbiographie eines australischen Ureinwohners, Wiener Vo:lkerkundliche Mitteilungen (1957), pp. 41, 46."

p. 189, n. 3:37

"on the Isle of Bougainville people maintain that on the way to the other world there grows a wild fig tree, a giant sycamore with numberless stems and aerial roots, in which live the souls of the unborn;

see H. Thurnwald, Jenseitsvorstellungen und Da:monenglaube des Buin-Volkes, in To:nnes, I. (ed.) Beitra:ge zur Gesellungs- und Vo:lkerwissenschaft (Berlin, 1950), p. 347."

p. 193, n. 3:48

"A motherly, fairy-like being, Maeae Syy, watches over the khwan, the soul of a child, in Thailand, which lives in a tree before being born. For a while after birth, the child belongs within the range of influence of this fairy;

see J. R. Hanks, Reflections on the ontology of rice, in Diamond, S. (ed.) Primitive Views of the World (New York, 1964), p. 152."

p. 194, n. 3:48

"the midwives of the city of Cologne" : "some of their designations still retain the memory of where they fetched the souls of the children : bomsmutter ‘tree mother’, in the region of Osnabru:ck, ... and waldweib ‘forest woman’, in the Bavarian Forest and upper Austria;

see M. Virkkunen, Die Bezeichnungen fu:r Hebamme in deutscher Wortgeographie (Giessen, 1957), pp. 63, 66."

pp. 22-23, 191-192 how prospective mothers-to-be receive the soul of the foetus which they conceive

p. 22

"Verena ... was venerated in the Verenen bath in Baden in Aargau. Women expected to receive children from the hot ‘Verena’s hole’. The song of Tannha:user, who dared to venture into the castle of Lady Vreneli, used to be sung ..., and ... the grave of St


p. 23

Verena in Zurzach was the scene ... itinerant women met at" : "At Zurzach during the dance of the whores ... There were more than a hundred whores".


"In Aargau, the midwife used to walk whistling three times around the ‘child’s stone’ shortly before a birth took place, ... then opened it with a golden key."

p. 191, n. 3:44 "See E. Samter, Volkskunde im alt sprachlichen Unterricht I (Berlin, 1923), p. 382."


"women who wanted to become pregnant carried water from the mineral springs into the mountains in Niederbronn in Alsace, where ... they poured water into the cleft stones."

p. 191, n. 3:45 "See L. Ru:timeyer, Ur-Ethnographie der Schweiz (Basel, 1924); and also W. Jordans, Der germanische Volksglauben von den Toten und Da:monen im Berg (Bonn, 1933), p. 19."


"the ‘white woman’ in Heubach in Swabia. In the Rosenstein Cave she handed the souls of the children to the midwife."

p. 192, n. 3:47 "See W. Mannhardt, Germanische Mythen (Berlin, 1858), p. 256."

p. 191, n. 3:43 "See A. Martin, Badewesen in vergangenen Tagen (Jena, 1906), p. 246; see also K. Weinhold, Die Verehrung der Quellen in Deutschland (Berlin, 1898), p. 25."

pp. 195, 197, 201 forcible sexual relations and spirit-possession

p. 195, n. 3:50

"Women storming through the streets created a scandal in 1418 : ‘So ... married women behave ..., and an honest man cannot pass through a street, for they will attack him and want to have intercourse with him’; see R. Grether, Frauen an der Basler Fastnacht, Schweizer Volkskunde (1972), p. 2."

p. 197, n. 3:59

In Dardistan, "people maintain that a woman can escape being raped if she succeeds in placing her nipple in her attacker’s mouth."

p. 201, n. 3:73

"[Spirit-]Possession is frequently described in sexual terms. Among the Amhara of Gondar, the zar spirit mounts the women, who are called ‘horses’, but also ‘brides of the spirits’; see M. Leiris, Die eigene und die fremde Kultur (Frankfurt/Main, 1977), p. 205."

pp. 203-204 the identity of molu, praesented by Hermes to Odusseus to be employed in hindering the charming of him by Kirke [during their sexual intercourse together]

p. 203, n. 3:76

"harmine, an alkaloid of the wild rue, ... mentioned in cuneiform texts;

see R. C. Thompson, The Assyrian Herbal (London, 1924), p. 270,


and which is thought to be identical to the legendary moly;

see A. Lang, Moly and mandragora, in Custom and Myth (London, 1885), p. 151 ...,


is said to have been used by witches in the later Middle Ages;

see T. F. T. Dyer, The Folk-Lore of Plants (London, 1889), p. 56."


"The moly, which Ulysses received from Hermes, is also identified with other plants.

E. D. Phillips, Odysseus in Italy, Journal of Hellenic Studies (953), p. 62, suggests that it might be Atriplex halimus, a plant with whitish leaves and a dark root, which is still in use as a protection against snakes."

p. 204, n. 3:76

"B. Stern also believes that garlic might be involved;

see Medizin, Aberglaube und Geschlechtsleben in der Tu:rkei I (Berlin, 1903), p. 315.

p. 204, n. 3:76

W. Mannhart’s candidate is St John’s wort;

see Zauberglaube und Geheimwissen (Leipzig, 1897), p. 57."

p. 204, n. 3:76

"Yaje` fills the same function ... . Women who accidentally saw the sacred musical instruments, cleansed themselves with the juice of the plant, mixed with the resin of Amyris carana;

see M. M. Ypiranga, Cariama~ : Peberta:tsritus frt Rucano-Indianer, Zeitschrift fu:r Ethnologie (1960), p. 37."

{Kirke ‘hawk’ = the female bird which hovered over the body of Osiris (who had suffered asphyxiation) while his penis stiffened in praeparation for his sexual intercourse with Isis; the female ‘Spirit (Breath) of God’ which, in bird-guise, hovered over the ‘Face of the Deep’ (B-Re>s^it 1:2); and the "blood-eagle on the back" as a Norse method causing asphyxiation. If the molu enabled to recover from drug-induced asphyxiation, the it (molu) would surely have been an anti-histamine (benadryl or the like).}

pp. 206, 208 Hellenic sacred beverages

p. 206, n. 3:84

"the Pythia ... drank from the Cassiotis spring early in the morning. ...;

see J. Pouilloux and G. Roux, Enigmes a` Delphes (Paris, 1963), p. 93".

p. 206, n. 3:84

"ox blood was drunk in a crevice ... by the priestess of Gaea at the oracle near Aigeira in Achaia;

see A. Dieterich, Mutter Erde (Leipzig, 1925), p. 60."

p. 208, n. 3:91

"the kykeon, which was taken by Demeter [Demeter] and also by the initiates emulating her, contained ... mint, rue ... and coriander {cf. partaking of another spice (cardamon) as sacrament in the Tantrik eucharist} ...;

see A. Delatte, Le cyce’on (Paris, 1955), p. 716".

pp. 29, 221-212 legends about seductive goddesses under tree-foliage

p. 29

"In a ballad by Thomas the Rhymer, the queen of elves, wearing a green dress, allows herself to be kissed under the eildon tree. ... she then tells his that he has to go with her and serve her for seven years."

p. 211, n. 3:99 "See A. Ru:egg, Die Jenseitsvorstellungen vor Dante I (Einsiedeln, 1945), p. 319."


Yakut myth : "the first human, a young man, came upon an enormous tree at ... where the moon did not wane and the sun never set ["The sun never sets over the island of Calypso, just as it always shines on Mount Lykaios" (p. 212, n. 3:104)], where the summer was everlasting and the cuckoo called incessantly. Suddenly, from the roots of the tree, a naked woman appeared".

p. 212, n. 3:105 "See U. Holmberg, Die Baum des Lebens (Helsinki, 1923), p. 58."

p. 212, n. 3:105

"from Iran" (?) : "a young man, ... approaching a tree situated between the sun and moon. A barebreasted woman peeps out from between its roots".

"L-I. Ringbom, in Graltempel und Paradies (Stockholm, 1954), p. 498."

pp. 212-213, n. 105 The fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil "is the Semitic ‘love apple’, ... the ‘Devil’s apple’ of the mandragora; see H. Gressmann, Mythische Reste in der Paradieserza:hlung, Archiv fu:r Religionswissenschaft (1907), p. 354".

p. 213, n. 3:107 superposed apertures through skies for flight

"The Chukchee shamans flew on the backs of eagles or thunderbirds through various worlds that were connected by openings, which were piled up under the North Star ...;

see W. Bogoras, The folklore of northeastern Asia, American Anthropologist (1902), p. 590."

"Mayas believed that there were seven layers of sky above the earth with gaping holes in them, arranged in perpendicular fashion. Through these, a ceiba tree connected the earth with the zenith. ... The dead climb up it until finally they reach the great god ...;

see A. M. Tozzer, A Comparative Study of the Mayas and the Lacandones (New York, 1907), p. 154; and W. Cordan, Go:tter und Go:ttertiere der Maya (Bern, 1963), p. 87".


4. "Wild Women and Werewolves"

pp. 223-224, 226, 238, 242 forcible sexual intercourse

p. 223, n. 4:2

"During corroborrees in north-west Australia the role of the clitoris in female lustfulness is emphasized over and over again;

see R. Rohrlich-Leavitt, B. Sykes and E. Weatherford, Aboriginal women, in Reiter, R. (ed.) : Toward an Anthropology of Women (new York, 1975), p. 122."

p. 224, n. 4:4

"Brechlerinnen of the Gail valley of Upper Carinthia" : "If these women managed to catch a man ..., they held him, ... and ‘planed’ him. {forcible masturbation of men by women?} ...;

see G. Graber, Alte Gebra:uche bei der Flachsernte in Ka:rnten, Zeitschrift fu:r o:sterreichische Volkskunde (1911), p. 156".

p. 224, n. 4:4

"They then proceeded to ‘plane’ them by handling their genitals. ...;

see E. Reicke, Magister und Scholaren (Leipzig, 1901), p. 90."

p. 226. n. 4:6

"it was maintained in Chaibar that after women rubbed themselves with cow’s milk and renounced Islam, they flew through the air on their palm sticks. They raped those men whom they spied from above, and after intercourse they blew into their penis until they went mad ...;

see J. Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums (Berlin, 1897), p. 158."

p. 238, n. 4:41

"During their stay in the wilderness as ‘spirit children’, the initiates of the Bushong rape any woman that happens to come near them. ...;

see J. Vansina, Initiation rituals of the Bushong, Africa (1955), pp. 142, 147."

p. 242, n. 5:10

Among "the Aranda, the maturing girls are raped by the men ... . The Aranda distinguish between two kinds of women : the nguanga or ‘quiet’ ones, i.e. the women who without opposition submit to the demands of the men, and alknarintja, the ‘wild’ ones, i.e. those who do not. ...;

see G. Ro`heim, Women and their life in central Australia, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (1933), p. 234."

pp. 34-35, 228, 230 people who ride on, or become, animals (the riders carrying harvest-stalks); usually in order to assure the abundance of the forthcoming year’s harvest

p. 34

"stated on record that she and her companions travelled about under the instructions of a demon called ‘Kru:tli’, and that on a Thursday, they fought using hemp stalks, with some of them riding on dogs."

p. 228, n. 4:14 "See Hoffmann-Krayer, Luzerner Akten zum Hexen- und Zauberwesen, Archives suisses des traditions populaires (1899), pp. 25, 27."


"in Quedlinburg ... she and some other women flew to the Brocken on a broomstick. They were accompanied by a man in a brown garment who meanwhile played the bagpipe. Once on the mountaintop, they hit each other with flails".

p. 228, n. 4:15 "See W. Grosse, Der Blocksberg, in Sieber, F. (ed.) Harzland-Sagen (Jena, 1928), p. 266."


at Ju:rgensburg in Latvia, peasant men "turned into wolves. ... Werewolves such as these had the task of rescuing the ‘grain blossoms’ ... which had been robbed by the ‘sorcerers’, and taken to ‘hell’, in the swamp under Lemburg (in Latvian Malpils)." {cf. Dionusiac underworld in swamp at Lerne in Argolis.}

p. 228, n. 4:16 "see H. Strods, Die Einschra:nkung der Wolfsplage und die Viehsucht Lettlands, Ethnologia Europaea (1970), pp. 126, 129."

p. 35

in Friaul, while on Thursdays "by night travelling with witches and goblins ... these witches ... rode various animals, and ... the women hit the men who were with them with millet stalks, and the men had nothing but fennel stalks in their hands."

p. 230, n. 4:21 "J. Klapper, Schlesische Volkskunde (Stuttgart, 1952), p. 111."

p. 236, n. 4:38 "John the Baptist" {Fennel was disapproved by the Yo^h.anan the Baptist, according to the Manda<. Is this disapproval based on its use by Prometheus?}

pp. 36, 232-233 the Wild Hunt

p. 36

"some ghostly throng carried them along ‘from the fields and the streets at the time of night, transporting them with great speed to regions far away.’ "

p. 232, n. 4:28

"R. Brandstetter, Renward Cysat (Luzern, 1909), p. 40. [The] town clerk of Lucerne, reports of those ‘flying souls’ that ‘they are very kindly disposed towards people; during the night, they come into the houses of those people who speak well of them and believe in them. ...

p. 233, n. 4:28

And where one encountered a person of that kind, he was highly honoured and considered much more pious that other people, reverent, and ... holy. Within my memory, [those] here in this city who had this call, ... were venerated by the simple folk for spending time in such exalted company’ (R. Brandstetter, op. cit., p. 41). Of those swept along ..., it was often maintained ... that from then on they could feel neither joy nor sorrow; see K. von Leoprechting, Aus dem Lechrain (Mu:nchen, 1855), p. 36. Persons who on the Scottish islands had been carried along by the Falbh air an t-Sluagh, and then returned, were described as ‘... awestricken’; see J. L. Campbell and T. H. Hall, Strange Things (London, 1968), p. 267."

pp. 232, 37, 235, 237, 239-240 mascarade; disguised mummers, and their praeternatural powers

p. 232, n. 4:26

"Calling the witches larvae may have had its origin in the Roman spirits of the dead ...;

see E. Jobbe’-Duval, Les morts malfaisants (Paris, 1924), p. 28.

p. 232, n. 4:26

The person wearing the mask (larvatus [larvatus]) was considered by the Romans to be possessed by these larvae;

see K. Meuli, Altro:mischer Maskenbrauch, Museum Helveticum (1955), p. 220. {cf. Balinese consideration of masked theatrical performers as spirit-possessed.} ...

p. 232, n. 4:26

‘Witches’ ... reported of the sabbat that they always wore laruen, i.e. ‘masks’ there ... . ...;

see K. Meuli, Maske und Maskereien, in Ba:chtold-Sta:ubli, H. (ed.) Handwo:rterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens V (Berlin, 1933), column 1759."

p. 37

"the cucheri ... through the villages south of Bucharest ... wore masks of horned birds and feathered goat heads."

p. 236, n. 4:36 See W. Liungman, Traditionswanderungen Euphrat-Rhein II (Helsinki, 1938), p. 801."

p. 235, n. 4:35

"Go back to sleep,

For now we, the Haberer, ... return to the Unterberg."

"The ... Haberer had their counterpart in the French charivari of the wild hunter called Hellequin."

p. 234, n. 4:35 "G. Queri, Bauernerotik und Bauernfehme in Oberbayern (Mu:nchen, 1911), p. 74, quoted in R. Wolfram, Schwerttanz und Ma:nnerbund (Kassel, 1936), p. 227."

p. 237, n. 4:38

"Gilg Tschudi of Glarus, writing in 1538, tells of the ‘Stopfer’ of the high country of Bu:nden that ‘... in truth they would never be able to jump that high and far after taking off their armor and completing their undertaking.’;

see K. Meuli, Schweitzer Masken (Zu:rich, 1943), p. 17; and R. Wolfram, Die Volksta:nze in O:sterreich (Salzburg, 1951), p. 45.


In Ingls in the Tyrol twelve men wearing devil’s masks suddenly observed a thirteenth dancer among them who ... jumped over the column of the village fountain, something no mortal could have possibly accomplished;

see J. A. Heyl, [Volkssagen, Bra:uche und Meinungen aus Tirol (Brixen, 1897),] p. 107.


... from Gastein ... a Percht runner ... jumped from the well up on a roof. From there, he bounded upward and remained drifting in the air ...;"

see V. Waschnitius, Perht, Holda und verwandte Gestalten, Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Wien, 1914), p. 58.

p. 239, n. 4:45

"In our Thuringia ... a respectable looking old man with grey hair whom they call the loyal Eckhard, heads their march ...;

M. J. Praetorius, Blockes-Berges Verrichtung (Leipzig, 1668), p. 15. ... the dwelling place of this ghostly assemblage is supposed to be the Ho:rsel mountain and ... Eckhard (we are reminded of Lady Venus’s dwarf) is ‘the doorkeeper or guard of Venus Mountain’. ...

p. 240, n. 4:45

In the Jeu de la feuille’e (‘Play About the Arbor’), written by the troubadour Adam de la Halle in 1262, ... a table is set for Morgan le Fay and ... Croquessos appears ..., the servant of Hielekin, the leader of the Wild Hunt ...;

see H. Kindermann, Theatergeschichte Europas I (Salzburg, 1957), p. 403. ... To this day, the Wild hunt is called ‘chasse Hennquin’ in Normandy, and will-o’-the-wisp is referred to as ‘arlequins’ in the Champagne region."


Hans Peter Duerr (transl. from the German by Felicitas Goodman) : Dreamtime : concerning the Boundary between Wilderness and Civilization. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1985.